443 Squadron Formation during World War II – Update

Posted in 2013

This whole article is taken from this Website. I will only add some pictures, mostly taken from Art Sager’s collection

443 Squadron Formation during World War II

Introduction

443 Squadron has enjoyed an eventful and active existence since it was conceived as a unit in Dartmouth, NS, on April 20, 1942. Initially, the squadron was tasked to fly defensive patrols over Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, but the demands of war saw 443’s transfer overseas and service with the Second Tactical Air Force. The squadron served throughout Europe until it was finally disbanded on March 15, 1946. The squadron was reformed on September 1, 1951 in Vancouver, BC for the purpose of “carrying out air and ground training covering all aspects of fighter squadron operations”. Over the next thirteen years, the role, equipment, and personnel changed frequently but it was not until March 31, 1964, that austerity spelled disbandment of the squadron.

On September 3, 1974, ten years later, the old Navy HS-50 Squadron was split, and one squadron was designated HS 443. From 1974 to 1989, the squadron was located at CFB Shearwater, carrying out the role of ASW (antisubmarine warfare) with the Sea King helicopter. In 1989, the squadron was moved to the west coast and based at Victoria International Airport near Patricia Bay, BC. Squadron responsibilities included providing Helicopter Air Detatchments (HELAIRDETs) to support Canada’s Pacific Fleet. The squadron’s motto was, and remains today, Our Sting is Death”.

Operational Training In Canada July 1942 – December 1943

The Fighting Four Hundred and Forty-Third Squadron of the RCAF began in Canada under the designation of No. 127 Squadron. It was created as a result of Japan’s entrance into the war in December 1941 and the build-up of the German U-Boat activities in the Atlantic in early 1942. This led to the requirement of strengthening Canada’s defence structure on both coasts. Shipping was being protected from surface and sub-surface threats by many newly formed bomber, reconnaissance, and fighter squadrons. No. 127 Squadron was just one of the new fighter squadrons formed to bolster the air defences of Eastern Air Command.

Although the official birth date of No. 127 Squadron, as given in the organization order (SOO 57 of 17 April 1942), was April 20, 1942, the actual formation took place several weeks later. It was originally planned to form at Sydney, NS, but due to the increased work load associated with the setting up of so many new squadrons in such a brief time, it was impossible to carry out the plans as they were originally drafted. On June 24, the “Place of origin” was amended to Dartmouth, NS, and in a few days, No. 127 Squadron came to life with an orderly room, a stores office, and a small staff. Effective July 1, F/L W. P. Roberts was appointed Officer Commanding, and P/U C. R. Slipp was named his adjutant. By July 4, the organization of the squadron had reached the point where the first daily routine order could be issued.

At first, flying training was carried out in co-operation with No. 126 (F) Squadron which had also been formed at Dartmouth in April 1942. This training continued until July 18th when six officers and thirteen Sergeant pilots were posted from 126 to 127 Squadron. At the same time, more airmen arrived and the new unit took on a definite shape. It was divided into two flights with F/O C. G. Pennock and P/O E. B. Hart as commanders. By the end of July, No. 127 Squadron had grown to a strength of eight officers and thirty-seven airmen, with a complement of eleven Hurricane fighters and three Harvards.
By August 1942, No. 127 Squadron was deemed ready for operational taskings and was ordered to leave for Gander, Newfoundland, to perform a protection role for the air base. The seven pilots (P/Os P. C. Holden and D. M. Walz,

Don Walz mod

D. M. Walz

and Sgts J. H. Bishop, H. L. Eakes, A. Frombolo, M. Humphries and J. R. Murray) and twenty-four ground crew embarked at Halifax on August 17 for a pleasant voyage to St. John’s, Newfoundland, arriving on August 19. There, they boarded a train for Gander and arrived 24 hours later after an arduous trip.

Meanwhile, six pilots, F/L Roberts, F/O Pennock, P/O Hart and Sgts M. W. Brown, A. R. Taylor and G. E. Tribier, accompanied by two ground crew members, departed for Sydney on August 11. They picked up four Hurricane I aircraft from No. 128 Squadron and flew them together with two Harvards from No. 127 Squadron, across to Gander by way of Stephenville.

Operational flying at this reunited squadron consisted of patrols and scrambles and occasional investigations of unidentified aircraft, although no enemy ever entered this territory. Varied exercises such as cross-country flights, formation flying, aerobatics, airfiring, battle climbs to 20,000 and 30,000 feet, night flying and bombing practice (after receiving the Hurricane IIs in October 1942), kept the squadron pilots sharp. At Gander, each pilot averaged 30 hours per month with over 343 hours being flown.

Aerial search training for missing aircraft was first used on November 22, 1942, when F/S A. R. Taylor took off in Hurricane JIB 5487 to carry out night aero­batics and circuits. When he failed to return, a search was initiated and at 1045 the next morning, F/S G. E. Tribner sighted the missing pilot near Indian Bay Pond about 15 miles northeast of the base. After being picked up by a Canso, uninjured but suffering from exposure, he reported that the Hurricane had flicked into an inverted spin when he was attempting a roll off the top of a loop. When he could not regain control, he took to his parachute. Mary Divine, the parachute packer, was as happy as F/S Taylor about its safe operation.

Just two weeks later, Sgt Bockman disappeared while on a low flying exercise. On the fifth day of searching, Sgts A. Frombolo and D. F. Bridges found him near Great Gull Lake about 70 miles southwest of Gander. On this occasion, a Canso dropped food and blankets, and a small Taylorcraft from the United States Army Air Force landed to fly him back to base. After minor repairs were carried out, the Hurricane was flown back to base in February by F/S M. W. Brown.

Although the squadron did not have to search for its own personnel again, it did several hunts for aircraft missing during the winter of 1942-43. On December 10, 1942, No. 127’s pilots located an airman from the crew of a missing Boston and nine days later, P/O A. R. Taylor (note the promotion) found the crashed aircraft.

Early in January, F/O D. M. Walz spotted two members of the crew of a Canso from No. 5 Squadron; on the following day the wreckage was sighted on the far side of Gander Lake and a rescue party was directed to the spot by 127’s aircraft flying overhead. A few days later, emergency rations were dropped to the crew of a Fox Moth. In February, the squadron located a downed Liberator and helped to fly a medical officer and emergency supplies to the scene.

If you have ever been frustrated by an old car that you could not keep serviceable, then you will understand the elation that No. 127 squadron pilots felt when they got new Hurricane IIs to replace the aged Hurricane Is in October.

Along with equipment changes came changes of personnel. On November 27, 1942, F/L Roberts handed over command to the former OC of No. 126 Squadron, F/L Paul A. Gilbertson. January 20, 1943, saw the original Adjutant F/O Slipp succeeded by P/O J. F. B. Lawrence. Six of the original thirteen pilots (Walz, Humphries, Eakes, Holden, Brown and Frombolo) completed the Gander tour while F/Os Hart and Pennock, P/Os Taylor and Tribner, and F/Ss Bishop and Murray left the squadron between January and June 1943.

The new pilots who joined the squadron at Gander (and remained at least a month) included Sgts G. E. Urquhart and P. G. Bockman (November), F/L Gilbertson, Sgts L. B. Foster,

Captain Foster mod

L. B. Foster

D. F. Bridges and W. I. Williams (December), P/O J. Yule (January 43), F/Os F. W. Ward and C. E. Scarlett and P/O G. F. Ockenden (April),

Ockenden photo mod

P/O G. F. Ockenden

P/O A. J. Horrell

Horrell Killed

P/O A. J. Horrell

and F/S J. C. Badgley (May), P/Os S. Bregman and W. A. Aziz, Sgts H. W. Summerfeldt and M. R. Sabourin (June).

There was not much change until May 23, 1943, when personnel previously attached to the squadron were posted in, thereby increasing its strength to 106 (thirteen officers and ninety-three airmen). As a result, aircraft serviceability was much improved. Gilbertson was promoted to squadron leader (effective May 1, 1943) in response to the increase in strength. Through his inventiveness, a new superior wring tip aerial was installed on the squadron’s Hurricane IIs.

In the spring of 1943, No. 127 gave assistance to local antiaircraft batteries in range calibration. In conjunction with Fighter Control at Gander, it also carried out practice ground control intercepts on raiding aircraft. Forest fires were always a hazard during the dry seasons, so patrols were flown over these areas and the base was saved by quick action the first summer that the squadron was in Gander.

Outside visitors were welcome additions to the squadron’s social life. The Governor-General of Canada and Princess Alice visited the station shortly after No. 127 arrived, and in May of 1943, the Governor- General of Newfoundland and Lady Walwyn saw a demonstration of formation flying by six Hurricanes and four Harvards.

Although the Gander tour was remarkably accident-free with the exception of the two previously mentioned air searches, two mishaps of note occurred. On February 22, 1943, Sgt H. L. Eakes had to crash-land ten miles from base when his engine failed. He escaped uninjured. F/O P. C. Holden, on July 10, 1943, made a perfect ‘deadstick’ gliding landing downwind when his engine burst into flames while he was carrying out an airframe and engine test. Six days later, Holden located a burning fishing schooner from which a small boat loaded with survivors was making for land. Group Headquarters congratulated his report and he was once again in the news.

On July 23, No. 126 Squadron exchanged duties with No. 127 Squadron and the squadron returned to Dartmouth. Aircraft strength increased to fifteen Hurricane XIIs and four Harvards. Personnel strength averaged 120, of which 23 were pilots. It was now a full-sized squadron and was averaging about 500 flying hours a month.

While at Dartmouth, P/O M. W. Brown, Sgt Frombolo, F/O P. C. Holden, F/S H. L. Eakes and P/O Humphries departed on postings, leaving only D. M. Walz of the original thirteen pilots. F/O F. W. Ward also left the squadron in the Fall of 1943. Newcomers were F/L W. V. Shenk, P/Os T. G. Munro, P. E. Piché and F/S P. E. Ferguson (July), F/O A. Hunter and P/O A. G. McKay (September), P/Os L. Perez-Gomez, W. A. C. Gilbert and L. H. Wilson (November). The squadron adjutant, F/O J. G. B. Lawrence, re- mustered to aircrew and left in November. F/O C. E. Scarlett took over his duties temporarily.

While at Dartmouth, No. 127 Squadron suffered its only fatal casualty when F/S M. R. Sabourin was killed in a crash on the marshy shore near Hubbard’s Cove, in the northwest area of St. Margaret’s Bay.

With the reduced scale of enemy activity on the east and west coasts of Canada, the RCAF was now able to release six fighter squadrons for duty overseas. During the hectic activities of preparing for departure, the new adjutant, F/O A. M. Cronsberry, arrived to relieve F/O Scarlett. At the same time, the Squadron learned that Paul Gilbertson, their Officer Commanding for over a year, would not accompany the unit overseas. Their disappointments were relieved when knowledge of their new commander-designate arrived. S/L H. W. McLeod, DFC and Bar, one of the outstanding fighter pilots in the RCAF, would lead them. In Malta, McLeod had destroyed thirteen enemy aircraft and damaged many others during the heavy fighting in the summer and autumn of 1942.

On the morning of December 23, 1943, the advance party of No. 129 Squadron arrived to take over No. 127’s duties at Dartmouth and a happy band of officers and airmen boarded a train to take them home on embarkation leave. So ended No. 127 Squadron’s tour in Canada. The squadron’s flying personnel now included: S/L H. W. McLeod, F/Ls D. M. Walz and M. V. Shenk,  P/Os E. H. Fairfield,

Hal Fairfield mod

P/O E. H. Fairfield

A. J. Horrell, A. Hunter,

Alec Hunter mod

A. Hunter

G. F. Ockenden and C. E. Scarlett, P/Os W. A. Aziz, S. Bregman, L. B. Foster, W. A. C. Gilbert, T. G. Munro, L. Perez-Gomez, L. P. E. Piché, W. I. Williams and L. H. Wilson, W02 D. F. Bridges, F/Ss P. G. Bockman, P. E. Ferguson and G. E. Urquhart, and Sgt H. W. Summerfeldt.

Operational Training In England February – April 1944

After a short embarkation leave, the squadron personnel reported to No. 1 “Y” Depot at Lachine for transport to Halifax, where they boarded the “Pasteur” on January 20, 1944, and sailed for overseas. The squadron landed at Liverpool on the last day of January and remained at No. 3 Personnel Reception Center at Bournemouth until February 13. It was here that the Fighting Four Hundred and Forty-Third began on February 8, 1944. Earlier in the war, the Royal Air Force had allocated a special block of numbers to the Dominion Air Forces, the Royal Canadian Air Force squadrons “overseas” were assigned the No. 400 series. No. 127 became No. 443.

The squadron now had only twenty-three pilots, plus a medical officer and three airmen. All the ground crew were posted to No. 6443 Servicing Echelon and since no adjutant was provided for, lucky F/O C. E. Scarlett assumed those duties after all the practice that he had in Canada.

443SqnPilotsEngland1944

From Bournemouth, 443 Squadron journeyed north to Digby, an RCAF Station in Lincolnshire. At Digby, the squadron became part of No. 144 (RCAF) Airfield which was in the process of forming under the command of W/C J. E. Walker, DFC and two bars. W/C J. E. Johnson, DSO and Bar, DFC and Bar, an outstanding RAF fighter “Ace”, was named Wing Commander Flying to lead the Airfield on operations. Two other new arrivals, No. 441 (formerly No. 125) and No. 442 (formerly No. 14), became associated with No. 443. The airfield was a component of 83 Group in 2nd Tactical Air Force which was to be the air support for the Army during the invasion of Western Europe.

Shortly after arriving in Digby, the first Spitfire MK VBs arrived and on February 23, training flights began. Serviceability of personnel due to the cold, wet weather and serviceability of aircraft due to age, lack of parts and experienced personnel, caused problems until the Spitfire MK IXBs arrived on March 11.

Two new pilots, F/S R. A. Hodgins and F/L W. A. Prest, joined the Squadron before it moved to Hoimsley South in Hampshire. Camp kits became the order of the day as the squadrons practiced mobility and slit trench digging for future use. Besides harmonizing the guns on their aircraft, the squadron learned escape methods from F/L Oliver Philpot, the author of Stolen Journey, who was the “third man” in the famous “Wooden Horse” escape.

While the squadron was away at Hutton Cranswick in Yorkshire to practice bombing, air combat and air-to-ground firing, the Airfield moved from Hoimsley to Westhampnett. The rail party returned to the new location April 5th, but the fogbound pilots took three more days to set up their tents and answer their mail. With No. 441 and No. 442 already started on operations, No. 443 flew sector reconnaissances and several sorties over the Channel. Several new pilots joined No. 443 as the squadron completed training in England. F/Ls I. R. MacLennan, DFM, Hugh Russel and E. B. Stovel,

Stovel mod

E. B. Stovel

F/O J. R. Irwin

Johnny Irwin mod

F/O J. R. Irwin

and G. R. Stephen, and P/O R. B. Henderson arrived to help form “A” Flight under Ian MacLennan and “B” Flight under Bill Prest.

Prelude To Invasion April – June 1944

Two months after arriving at Digby, 443 Squadron pilots S/L McCleod, F/Ls Prest, Walz, MacLennan, and Stovel, F/Os Perez-Gomez, Scarlett, Fairfield, Gilbert, Hunter and Stephen, and P/O Bockman left Westhampnett to provide top cover for a formation of Bostons bombing a target at Dieppe. D-Day preparations continued in earnest between April 13 and June 5 with more than 487 sorties being flown.

On April 19, while escorting a Marauder formation to bomb Malines, S/L McLeod scored the squadron’s first kill and his fourteenth personal kill. His combat report, the first of more than 60 filed by pilots of 443 Squadron, read: “I was flying White 3 on the starboard side of Ramrod 753. When proceeding east of Louvain at zero feet, my number two (F/L Russel) reported a Do. 217 at three o’clock, same level. White 1 (W/C Johnson) told me to attack. I cut in behind the Do. 217 firing a four second burst from 300 to 100 yards from dead astern. Many strikes were observed: large pieces flew off and the starboard engine burst into flames. I broke under him to avoid the debris, as my windscreen was covered with his oil. He pulled up sharply to starboard several hundred feet and then spun in, exploding in flames. My engine had cut, so I returned to base with White 4. I claim one Do. 217 destroyed. Rounds fired 79 cannon, 200 machinegun.”

Bomber escorts for Bostons and Mitchells over the Crecy area, St Omer, and as far as Coblenz, Germany, fully occupied the squadron, which moved to Funtington, Sussex on the 22nd. On the morning of the 25th, W/C Johnson led No. 441 and 443 Squadrons on a sweep around Paris. They encountered six FockeWulfs and destroyed them, two kills by “Johnny”, one by F/L Hugh Russel and F/L Walz and two by No. 441 Squadron. Only three of 443 pilots returned directly to base; four ended up in Exeter, and “. . . two crashed near Warmwell when their fuel ran out.” Later that evening, the squadron flew close escort to Marauders over Cherbourg.

F/Ls Prest, Russel and Walz, F/Os Gilbert and Scarlett, and P/O Hodgins

Hodgins mod

P/O Hodgins

practiced dive-bombing on a flying-bomb site south of Dieppe on the 26th; more bombs were dropped on railway bridges south of Cherbourg. Then, on May 3 and 4, the final full-scale dress rehearsal prior to invasion occurred.

In the early morning of May 5, W/C Johnson took his whole wing on a fighter sweep over the Lille area which claimed four Luftwaffe FW 190s. Johnny Johnson accounted for one (his 28th destroyed); Wally McLeod dog-fought another into the turf; and No. 441 Squadron claimed two more Huns. Whether escorting Mitchells, American A20s or Marauders to bombing sites, the squadron’s Spitfires were always on the look-out for enemy movement on the ground, and often used barges or motor lorries for target practice.

From Funtington, the Airfield moved to Ford, near Littlehampton, on the Sussex coast. Mobility was practiced often, as were route marches to condition the men for the vigorous field life. Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham, the AOC of 2nd TAF, frequently visited the 144 Airfield to reveal bits of what lay ahead and to check on readiness. At RAF Station Ford, the designation 144 Airfield was changed to 144 Wing and the Calgary Malting and Brewing Company sent the first in a series of gifts (4,000 cigarettes) to make the stay more pleasant. After days of poor weather, No. 443’s pilots were able to see and destroy an old chateau between Dieppe and Le Treport. Fighter sweeps around Laon, Cambrai, Paris, Chartres, Jamappes and Denain showed that “Jerry” was still conserving his fighter forces and relying on the flak battery for defence. Ground targets were also attacked, near Ghent, Bruges and Le Havre.

In the early evening of June 4, S/L McLeod led a formation of eleven aircraft on the squadron’s last pre-invasion operation. The task was to knock out an enemy radar post on the coast ten miles west of Fecamp, and as was to be expected, the ground defences put up an intense, although futile, barrage. Four direct bomb hits were seen, in addition to other near misses within damaging distance.

By this time, the squadron knew that the long expected invasion was only hours away. The invasion markings (broad black and white bands) were painted on the Spitfires. No. 443 Squadron now had twenty-eight pilots on strength. S/L H. W. McLeod, F/Ls A. Hunter, W. A. Prest, W. V. Shenk and D. M. Walz, F/Os W. A. Aziz, E. H. Fairfield, P. E. H. Ferguson, L. B. Foster, W. A. C. Gilbert, A. J. Horrell, R. A. Hodgins, T. G. Munro, G. F. Ockenden, L. Perez-Gomez, L. P. E. Piché, C. E. Scarlett, and W. I. Williams, and F/S G. E. Urquhart had all been with the squadron since the beginning of its overseas tour in February. F/Ls I. R. MacLennan, H. Russel and E. B. Stovel and F/Os R. B. Henderson, J. R. Irwin and G. R. Stephen, had joined in March and April. More recent additions were F/L G. W. A. Troke, DFC (on April 28) F/O W. J. Bentley (on May 16) and S/L J. D. Hall (on May 26).

In the evening of June 5, the pilots also flew a protective patrol over convoys moving out into the Channel, then gathered in the intelligence hut to be briefed by W/C Johnson on the great undertaking that was already under way. D-Day was at hand!

The Battle Of Normandy June-August 1944

There was very little sleep for anyone on the eve of D-Day. Reveille came early on June 6 and by 0430, the pilots were ready for the first call to action. At 0620, S/L McLeod led twelve pilots to patrol the beachhead between Courseulles and Le Havre. After landing at Ford at 0825 for a hurried breakfast, the squadron flew again at 1125, 1540, and 1945, for 95 hours on 48 sorties. F/L MacLennan became the squadron’s first casualty on operations when glycol leaks forced him down in enemy-held territory near Cabourg. F/O Piché, his number two, saw him scramble out of the Spitfire and run towards some farm buildings before being captured. F/L F. A. W. J. Wilson, DFC, was posted to No. 443 to replace MacLennan as “A” Flight Commander. 443 Squadron were given the designator ”2I’ and this insignia was painted on all Squadron aircraft ahead of the Air Force roundel.

As an afternoon flight on the seventh was nearing completion, F/L Prest spotted four Messerschmitts, damaging one while F/L Hugh Russel and F/O G. F. Ockenden combined to blow up another. Later S/L Hall’s Spitfire absorbed several bullets and F/O Henderson luckily walked away after engine failure forced him down.

Weather scrubbed most flying on the eighth and ninth, but history was almost made on June 10 when five of the squadron’s pilots landed in France just two hours after an RAF Squadron and a Polish unit had made the first operational landings on the Normandy coast.

Near Rouen, on the eleventh, F/O Hodgins attacked a locomotive, making a direct hit on the boiler. A few nights later, S/L McLeod and Hodgins spotted three or four Do. 217 bombers heading towards friendly territory. The dim dusk light made identification hazardous but when a Dornier opened fire on Hodgins, he responded with several bursts that sent it exploding into the water. McLeod also destroyed his foe.

NORMANDY NEMESIS

Issued with Air Combat Paintings Volume VI RAF & Commonwealth Edition

When Johnnie Johnson led the Mk IX Spitfires of his 144 Canadian Wing to temporary airstrip B.3 near the village of St Croix sur Mer, a few miles inland from the Normandy beach head, they were making history. As they landed on the hastily constructed Summerfield mesh track­ing runway on D-Day plus 9, they became the first Allied air force unit to be based in former occupied Europe, and the first to operate in France after D-Day. Mk IX Spitfires of 443 Squadron RCAF, based at St Croix sur Mer tangle with a group of Fw190s whom they had encountered on a fighter sweep near Alençon, in southern Normandy on 23 June 1944. During the melée that followed, their Squadron Leader, Wally McLeod, quickly destroyed two Fw190s, whilst another Fw190 was badly damaged.
The morning of June 15 saw the beginning of the move which made 144 Wing the first RCAF fighter wing to be based on the continent. The dust at St Croix billowed skyward in huge columns as aircraft scurried about. First operations from Normandy on the 16th were a mixture of success, with Wally McLeod and Johnson getting more “destroyed”, and tragedy, when Walz, Hall, Russel and Perez-Gomez were shot down (the latter three being killed). Walz, luckily, took to his parachute before his plane exploded, and hid himself with branches and grass. German search patrols passed very close several times without seeing him. That evening, he crawled out of the danger area, which was still teeming with Germans, and found new shelter in a wheat field. Here, farmers aided him with food and clothing, and soon the “underground” put him in touch with advancing American forces who reunited him with his squadron.

S/L McLeod’s above-mentioned “destroyed” was his 17th and earned him the Distinguished Service Order. By the time this award was promulgated, his score was up four more.

After some futile dive-bombing on the 17th, poor weather grounded the squadron for three days. On the twenty-third, No. 443 joined No. 442 for a fighter sweep over the battle lines. Johnson spotted five FW 190s heading eastward and led his section down to attack, followed by McLeod with Blue section. In attempting to chase the FW 190s up through the clouds to the awaiting bullet barrage of Johnson, McLeod engaged and destroyed two FockeWulfs using only 26 shells from each cannon. Shenk and Prest experienced gun stoppages due to the dust and their Huns escaped.

On June 24, the squadron began armed reconnaissance (A/R) along roads behind the lines in search of enemy motor transport. Scrambles to intercept enemy raiders provided more instances of dust clogging aircraft guns.

While on an A/R mission, intense and accurate flak forced abandonment of that task. Ground control reported enemy aircraft in the vicinity and vectored No. 443 to intercept. F/O G. R. Stephen followed a group of eight or ten FockeWulfs and was able to close within 300 yards for a kill. Blue section meanwhile was in hot pursuit as F/O W. A. C. Gilbert, F/L G. W. A. Troke and F/O R. A. Hodgins combined for a kill. F/L W. V. Shenk was also inflicting damage to a FockeWulf when his gun failed thereby robbing him of a sure kill.

On Dominion Day, a scramble intercepted six long nosed FW 190s carrying bombs. They turned to meet the Spitfire attack and closed head on exchanging bursts with neither side making strikes. It was almost two weeks before No. 443 again encountered the Luftwaffe.

During the first two weeks of July, No. 443 carried out 34 operations, of which 19 were armed recces, the others patrols or scrambles. These A/R sorties counted 24 vehicles destroyed or “flamers”, 11 “smokers” and 21 damaged.

While leading a quartette of 443 aircraft, F/L Prest was attacked by fifteen enemy fighters. The Spitfires quickly considered the odds and vanished into the clouds.

During this period, the Wing spent four weeks at St Croix and was feeling quite “settled” although the dust was a constant problem. Mr. G. Greenough tells of how he and his fellow maintainers used coffee cans filled with sand and petrol as stoves to make their coffee, and heat their monotonous diet of canned foods.

F/L F. A. W. J. Wilson came to the end of his second tour early in July and handed over “A” Flight to F/L J. G. L. Larry Robillard, DFM, from No. 442 squadron. He had proven himself early by destroying an ME 109 on one of his first sorties over France. On July 2, 1941, after destroying two opponents, he was shot down while attempting to protect some comrades who had been forced to bale out. Larry was able to evade capture and made his way across France and Spain to Gibraltar then back to England. For his air victories and successful evasion, he received the DFM.

Reorganization broke up 144 Wing in July. No. 443 joined 127 Wing with Nos. 403, 416 and 421, and moved from St Croix to Crepon on the afternoon of July 14.

During its time with 144 Wing, S/L McLeod’s squadron destroyed thirteen enemy aircraft (McLeod 6, Walz 2, Hodgins, Gilbert, Stephen, Russel one each and Russel and Ockenden sharing one) and damaged five, (Prest 3, Shenk 2). In ground attacks, the squadron destroyed two locomotives and 42 vehicles, and damaged 15 mechanized enemy transport (MET) “smokers”, two engines, a barge, a signal house and 42 mechanized vehicles.

W/C J. E. Johnson succeeded W/C R. A. Buckham as Wing Commander Flying at 127 Wing. The commander of 127 Wing was G/C W. R. MacBrien who took over at this time from W/C M. Brown.

The Squadron’s operations with the new wing followed the same pattern as before with frequent A/R sorties. Additionally, every third or fourth day the squadron carried out defensive front-line patrols.

On the afternoon of July 20, S/L McLeod began closing on a FW 190, but before he could fire, the pilot baled out. Meanwhile the other section of Spitfires, led by F/L Robillard, encountered a group of 30 FockeWulfs at 4,000 ft over Bernay. Larry quickly polished off one and then his section “nipped smartly away, the odds being too great”.

Jerry’s flak was becoming increasingly “hot” as he sought to protect his transport from this constant nibbling. F/L A. J. Hornell and F/L W. A. Prest were hit but got home safely. F/O T. G. Munro was unable to glide back to our lines when his engine faltered. After taking to his parachute, he was captured and held prisoner until exchanged on medical grounds early in 1945.

The third armed recce on the 26th proved interesting. While reconnoitering southeast by Dreux, the squadron came upon a dogfight between at least twenty enemy fighters and some Allied Mustangs. The Spitfires soon dispersed some of the enemy and chased two as far as Paris.

On the July 30th, No. 443 was scrambled to intercept thirty plus ME 109s south of Mortagne. McLeod and Bentley got kills fairly quickly while Hodgins engaged seven of the enemy on the deck. On rejoining McLeod, Hodgins engaged the second 109, a good burst hit along the fuselage and made the coupe top fly off. Just as he was about to finish him off, he saw tracers passing over his own wing tip and broke away to return home with McLeod.

In early August, the pilot strength rose from 25 to 27. At that time, Prime Minister Winston Churchill visited the beachhead in Normandy to address 127 Wing personnel. Leave was reintroduced in early August with F/L Robillard and F/O Ockenden being the first lucky pair to soak up the joys in the “Land of Mild and Bitter” for a week.

August was an eventful month, culminating in the “Falaise pocket” and the end of the Battle of Normandy. Armed recces on moving targets or bridges, railway junctions and buildings were the order of the day. F/O W. J. Bentley became the first casualty of these activities when his Spitfire developed a glycol leak. He crashed before he could take to his parachute.

During the first two weeks of August, only one Nazi aircraft was sighted, and F/L Troke literally scared the pilot out of his seat before any shots were fired. Meanwhile the British, Canadian and American forces were encircling the enemy, causing them to flee in confusion. From the fifteenth to nineteenth, hundreds of German vehicles were left destroyed, damaged, smoking or in flames as they retreated.

On the twenty-third, while leading No. 443 and No. 421 on a fighter sweep around Paris, W/C Johnson sighted 60 to 80 enemy aircraft approaching head-on in two groups. Johnson instructed No. 421 to engage the higher group while he led No 443 into the lower formation of 30 or 40 fighters. The next few minutes saw the 20 Canadian Spitfires dogfight their opponents in one of the greatest air battles in weeks. Twelve of the German aircraft were destroyed while our Wing lost only three. F/O G. F. Ockenden was credited with two destroyed and one damaged while Johnson got two and Horrell, Robillard and Fairfield accounted for one each. German road and air activity was now slowing noticeably.

The Battle of Normandy was over. Hitler’s Atlantic Wall had been smashed and his armies were falling back now on the Siegfried Line. Since D-Day, No. 443 Squadron had made 1,933 sorties on patrols, armed reconnaissances and fighter sweeps. It had destroyed 19 enemy aircraft in combat and engaged eight more. On the roads, it took credit for 152 “flamers”, 150 “smokers”, 194 damaged, and the destruction of a locomotive.

On these operations, eight pilots had been reported missing; four were presumed dead, three were taken prisoner, and one pilot evaded capture and rejoined the squadron.

Arnhem and Nijmegen September, October 1944

The rapid retreat of the Germans eastward from the Falaise pocket soon left the squadrons on the Normandy beachhead out of effective range of the battle front, making a move necessary. No. 443 left Crepon on August 26 and flew 90 miles south-eastward to Illiers l’Eveque, which had been used by the Luftwaffe. Even as the squadrons arrived, they were still almost out of reach of the front, and petrol was becoming a problem.

Shortly after arriving at Illiers, F/O G. R. Stephen’s tour expired and F/S C. G. Stevenson took his place. The pilots were still going in pairs for a week of leave in England, but now the groundcrew were able to get away to Paris and taste the joys of that entertaining city.

Le Culot, Belgium, became the squadron’s next home on September 21. German barracks were used instead of the tents. Here F/L E. B. Stovel took over from F/L Larry Robillard as “A” flight commander and F/O Phil Bockman returned after his injury in April. About this time, a great airborne assault was aimed at three key points in the Netherlands: Grave, Nijmegen and Arnhem. Two of the three were taken but the “Red Devils” of the 1st British Airborne Division fought nine days for the bridge at Arnhem before withdrawing September 25. A movie entitled “A Bridge Too Far” immortalizes their fight. No. 443 began patrolling the Nijmegen area and bombed railway bridges there.

Enemy flak had been intense and F/O L. D. Sherwood’s Spitfire was hit. His companions saw him crash and burst into flames near Nijmegen. No one had seen him take to his parachute, but a month later he returned to visit the Squadron on his way to England for leave and a rest.

After uneventful patrols on the morning of September 27, W/C Johnson destroyed his 38th (highest total in RAF) enemy aircraft in a melee over Rees on the banks of the Rhine. F/O Rooney Hodgins forced another Messerschmitt away from his commander and got another destroyed for himself. F/L H. P. Fuller gave the “tail-end Charlie” of the German formation bursts of cannon and machine-gun fire to do it in. F/L E. B. Stovel, F/O Gilbert and F/L Walz also tallied one each.

But these victories were won at a heavy cost. S/L H. W. McLeod, DSO, DFC and Bar, who had 21 enemy aircraft to his credit and was the top-scoring day-fighter pilot in the RCAF, was missing.

While returning from a low patrol, F/L Troke saw ten enemy aircraft ahead but soon 50 to 75 ME 109s and FW 190s came through the clouds in front of the Spitfires. In the dogfighting that followed, the twelve Canadian pilots fought brilliantly against tremendous odds and shortages of petrol. Seven of the enemy went down and three others were damaged without any loss in personnel to the squadron. September 29 was amazingly successful for the other RCAF squadrons as well. No. 416 destroyed six, damaged five; No. 421 three and one; No. 421 tallied 8 and 3; No. 412 scored 14 destroyed and six damaged and 441 added 3 destroyed for a total of 39 destroyed, 3 probable, and 15 damaged by the six Canadian squadrons.

On the thirtieth, after several uneventful patrols, the squadron landed at their new base at Grave in the Netherlands. At Le Culot, No. 443 Squadron had its best hunting with eleven enemy fighters destroyed, two more probably destroyed and three damaged. The squadron lost one pilot and another spent four weeks behind enemy lines. The total in five days for the eight Canadian Squadrons was 97 destroyed, three probably destroyed and 39 damaged.

At Grave, S/L A. H. Sager succeeded S/L McLeod as CO after having served with three of the squadrons in 127 Wing. He had destroyed five and damaged five Nazi fighters before joining No. 443. Three new pilots, F/O Q. A. Dodson, F/L T. R. Watt and WO R. L. Gaudet also came to the squadron at Grave.

Besides sighting “vapour trails” from V-2 rockets and escorting His Majesty the King from Eindhoven to Brussels, life was uneventful in Grave. The weather got worse and grounded the squadron for six consecutive days.

A few days later, on October 11, F/Os Piché and Horrell left for Antwerp in the squadron’s Auster. Horrell was to pick up a replacement Spitfire while Piché flew on to Brussels to arrange accommodation for the servicing personnel when leave finally started for them in mid-October. They were never heard from again although the burned-out wreckage of the Auster was found near Deurne.

One highlight of the three weeks at Grave occurred when the new “B” Flight Commander, H. P. Fuller, acted as master of ceremonies for the squadron party on October 20. Skits, musical acts, and an eight-piece orchestra from the servicing echelon proved that much talent lay hidden under RCAF uniforms.

The most outstanding feature at Grave was not the weather nor operations nor the parties. It was enemy bombing! With the front lines only a few miles away, the men needed no urging to dig slit trenches by their tents and wear steel helmets as ME 262s frequently nipped across to drop a pocket of anti-personnel bombs on the field.

Winter In Belgium

On October 22, due to heavy rains flooding the landing strip at Grave, the squadron moved back to Melsbroek, north-east of Brussels. Because of a lack of telephone communication, transport, and the fact that commissioned and non-commissioned personnel were quartered at different sites some distance from the field, operations were severely curtailed.

For the next fortnight, 443’s major tasking was to supply fighter support to 137 and 139 Bomber Wing, also flying from Melsbroek. In addition to the Mitchell bomber escorts, 33 uneventful patrols were flown in the areas around Venraij and Maas. The low total of 114 sorties between October 28 and November 11 was also caused by weather; fog and rain again grounded the squadron from November 12 to 17.

During this period, F/O W. B. Dalton,

Peewee Dalton mod

F/O W. B. Dalton

WO P. C. Gomm, a Brazilian,

Percy Gomm mod

WO P. C. Gomm

and P/O A. B. Clenard joined the squadron. In addition, F/O L. D. Sherwood, who had been shot down behind enemy lines a month earlier and evaded the enemy, rejoined 443. Tour-expired pilots included Hodgins and Stovel, who were both posted back to England. Hodgins’ squadron record included three destroyed, one probable, and one damaged aircraft, and an award of the DFC. F/L P. G. Blades replaced Stovel as “A” Flight Commander, the latter being homeward bound to Canada.

On November 4, squadron aircraft moved to Evere, closer still to Brussels, though billets remained unchanged. However, the improved social life resulted in one marriage within a month. Also about this time, 443 became the “Hornet” squadron with the warning motto “Our Sting is Death”, and was ‘adopted’ by a sponsor group in the city of Regina.

For the next month, after flying was resumed on November 18, the squadron flew continuous but uneventful patrols over the battle front area between Weert and Roermond. No enemy aircraft were engaged and aircrews had to settle for strafing ground targets such as vehicles, trains, factories, and gun positions, with excellent results. Heavy flak from ground targets did not result in any squadron losses, but an aircraft engine failure caused two Spitfires to crash. The pilots, F/Os A. M. Thomas and D. J. Wegg, escaped injury.

Squadron flying for 1944 terminated after missions on the fifteenth and eighteenth of December in the Aachen to Trier area of the Siegfried Line. Here Von Rundstedt launched the famous “Battle of the Bulge”, but weather and cloud prevented 443 from being effective, and premature removal of radio transmitter crystals in anticipation of Air Gunnery Practice in England, resulted in missions on the eighteenth being complete fiascos.

December departures from the squadron included F/Os G. F. Ockenden and W. A. G. Gilbert, both who had joined the squadron in Canada, and F/O A. M. F. Thomas.

Tommy Thomas mod

F/O A. M. F. Thomas

Gordon Ockenden left with a score of four and one half destroyed ME 109s, a damaged FW 190, and the DFC. Posted in were F/O H. F. Ulmer, F/L W. I. Gould, F/O T. C. Gamey, P/O K. M. Cooke, and F/O R. D. Marsh.

On December 18, after an abortive patrol over the lines, the squadron flew to England and Armament Practice Camp at Warmwell. It had been six months since they left England, and their return over the festive season did much for morale. In addition, while in England, the squadron celebrated the award of a DFC to their Commanding Officer, S/L A. H. Sager, who had downed five enemy aircraft.

Art Sager in Spitfire

S/L A. H. Sager

On January 3, 1945, 443 returned to Evere, to find that a Luftwaffe “Blitz” had shot up their airfield as well as other air bases in Belgium and Holland. The squadron lost two Spitfires, left behind at Evere, in his attack. The next day, the Hornets were back at work flying armed patrols.

On January 5, while strafing two factories in the Munster area, heavy flak resulted in the loss of F/O T.C. Gamey. F/L Walz received a minor leg injury, but brought his shot-up aircraft back to base. Weather lien grounded the squadron until January 13. On the tenth, a disabled Fortress crash landed and burned at Evere; moments later a bomb exploded, severely injuring LAC W. E. A. Frazer, one of the squadron’s armourers. Two of the Fortress’ crew of nine were killed.

On the thirteenth and fourteenth, good weather permitted armed patrols in the St Vith and Houffalize area. Here they found over 200 German vehicles retreating from the “Bulge”. Over several sorties, 443 destroyed five and damaged twenty-nine. Flak destroyed F/L E. H. Fairfield’s aircraft and punched a large hole in the wing of F/L “Bub” Fuller’s Spitfire. However, the only casualty to the Hornets resulted when Fairfield bailed out and slightly injured his ankle.

Bad weather on the week of January 15-21 resulted in only two operations in the Munster area. The highlights were three destroyed or damaged vehicles, and a close call for F/L W. J. Sherman when his oxygen system failed at 20,000 feet.

Tank Sherman mod

F/L W. J. Sherman

January saw G/C W. R. MacBrien, OBE, Commander of 127 Wing, replaced by G/C P. S. Turner, DSO, DFC, a Canadian with experience in both the Mediterranean and European theaters. Three squadron NCO pilots, Stevenson, Gomm, and Gaudet, were promoted to pilot officer, and a new pilot, P/O M. C. Tucker was posted in. Two other important January changes were the quartering of aircrew closer to the field, and the arrival of the first Spitfire XVIs to place the IX model. The changeover to the newer ‘Spit’ was completed by mid-February.

Improved weather on the twenty-second permitted Art Sager to lead his formation into the RheineMunster area. Coming onto an enemy aerodrome, Sager, with F/O Marsh, damaged an enemy aircraft attempting to take off, as well as several ground vehicles. Returning home, they added a staff car and mobile flak wagon to their day’s total. That afternoon, 443 leaflet-bombed Heinsberg, Erkelens, Straelen, and Geldern. The squadron diary stated “We expect immediate capitulation of all four places”.

The three sorties flown on January 23 saw nary a single enemy aircraft. The third, into the Stadtkyll area, did result in the destruction or damage of twenty-four German vehicles. The Nazi military appeared to be in hiding.

Poor flying conditions for the rest of the month resulted in only a VIP escort to England on the twenty-fifth, and an uneventful armed recce on the twenty- eighth. The six VIP escort pilots did get a three day break in England, thanks to the duff weather.

At the end of January, F/L H. P. Fuller became tour expired and Don Walz took over ‘B’ Flight. In February, F/L A. Hunter, F/O P. E. H. Ferguson, F/O L. B. Foster, F/L R. B. Henderson, F/L J. R. Irwin and F/L P. G. Blades followed Fuller. F/L L. E. Hunt

Hunt mod

F/L L. E. Hunt

replaced Blades as “A” Flight Commander. The squadron also lost P/O R. L. Gaudet, posted out on medical grounds. This left only Phil Bockman, Fairfield, and Don Walz of the original twenty pilots posted overseas from Canada a year earlier. Replacement pilots were F/L J. C. Turcott,

Turk Turcot mod

F/L J. C. Turcott

F/O’s J. Collins, H. A. Greene, M. J. S. Clow, S. E. Messum, G. A. McDonald, J. W. O’Toole,

jim-otoole

and WO C. J. Grant. As well, F/O C. E. Glover, Hornet adjutant, was replaced by P/O C. W. Kroeker.

In February, weather grounded the squadron for thirteen days. However, on every occasion possible, the Hornets were launched to strike again at the tottering Third Reich. Thus, they averaged twenty-two sorties a day on the fifteen flyable days.

On February 2 and 3, the squadron flew escort for the Mitchells on an uneventful recce of the Munster and Hamm areas. On the sixth and eighth, the flying program was again repeated, but the armed recce found and destroyed two locomotives, damaged two more and shot up eight freight cars. On the tenth, the squadron’s train smashing continued, with two rail engines damaged. The bomber escorts and patrols of February 11 saw no activity due to low cloud cover, identical results following on the thirteenth, the squadron’s first anniversary.

On St. Valentines day, S/L Art Sager led the Hornets on three dive-bombing missions against German rail junction points. With virtually no flak opposition, results were excellent; twelve direct hits and fifteen near misses. A station house and twelve freight cars were also destroyed. Weather permitted the squadron to fly escort to Lancasters on the sixteenth; the four bomber attacks devastated Wesel, but the squadron scored no targets. Fog grounded 443 for the next four days.

The twenty-first of February saw two armed recces destroying four vehicles and damaging twenty-five more. They also encountered a train “Flak Trap” and an airfield of dummy aircraft which they passed up. A total of thirty-six sorties were launched the next day. But since the Germans were hiding, there were no new kills added to the squadron tally.

The twenty-fourth was more eventful. The second sortie resulted in three destroyed and three damaged vehicles. F/L Walz was shot down behind enemy lines for the second time. However, this time he was taken prisoner and had to be replaced as B Flight Commander by F/L H. C. Charlesworth. The third patrol, like the first, found no targets.

The next day, ten pilots tried dive-bombing moving trains, but with no hits. They were then bounced by two FW 190s who quickly hid in the cloud cover. Next, two Me 262s were spotted, but the “Spits” could not catch the faster jets. On the way home, P/O Gomm’s propeller split, and he had to dead stick land near Asch, in northeastern Belgium, where he hitchhiked back to Evere.

During the rest of February, the squadron was grounded due to weather. On March 1, two sorties in the Munster and Hamm areas under heavy flak resulted in only one destroyed vehicle. The next day, the Hornets flew their last missions from Evere, again their task was to cut rail lines. They recovered at Petit Brogel, their home for the next four weeks.

Squadron statistics for their stay in the Brussels area were not impressive, mainly due to the poor weather. In November, 201 sorties resulted in 275 hours flying. December, with the Hornets in England for a fortnight, saw only 145 sorties totaling 186 hours. 165 sorties and 216 hours was the January total which was considerably lower than the 326 sorties and 536 hours flown in February, despite only fifteen flying days. However, the move of squadron aircrew to the airfield likely helped raise the flying statistics considerably.

From The Rhine to the Elbe March – May 1945

443 group picture 1945

In preparation for the final Spring offensive by the Army, G/C Turner’s Wing moved closer to the front. Petit Brogel, near the Belgium-Dutch border, became the Hornets’ new hive on March 2. Here, metal tracking was laid on the roads and parking strips, to minimize the bog that had been encountered in Grave. Although 562 sorties were flown here, all the the excitement came in the last week.

From March 3 to 22, air activity was comparatively quiet. Fighter sweeps, A/Rs and patrols took No. 443 pilots over Nordhorn, Rheine, Emmerich, Dinslaken, Kempen, Nijmegen, Osnabruck, Munster, Burgsteinfurt, Bocholt, Geldern, Dorsten and Winterswijke, but proved uneventful.

F/O F. R. Kearns

Red Kearns mod

F/O F. R. Kearns

and F/L E. H. Fairfield had now become tour-expired and were replaced by F/Os H. R. Hanscom and G. S. Taylor.

Petit Brogel was not a great social event although Art Sager directed an excellent wing concert which packed the house. After the March 21 and 22 rest, both air and land offensives rose to a final overwhelming peak. Forty-four sorties on the twenty-third found only some light flak and a few vehicles, two of which were damaged. No. 443 flew four uneventful patrols on the twenty-fourth, except for F/L Charlesworth’s engine failure which caused him to crash land on the air field. Some aircraft and vehicles were sighted but only a few of the MET were destroyed.

On the departure of S/L Art Sager, DFC, after six months in command of No. 443, S/L T. J. De Courcy, formerly a flight commander in No. 421, took over. On March 30, his first lead mission dropped five of twelve bombs directly on a factory in the Enschade-Munster area. F/L J. R. Watt led a second bombing mission that cut two railways and destroyed a couple of buildings by a railroad junction. On the thirty-first, F/O G. A. McDonald had to bale out and spent a month in a POW camp after only a month of operations. This patrol landed at the wing’s new base at Eindhoven.

As the armies swept forward into north-western Germany, the fighter squadrons of 2nd TAF followed close behind. After twelve days in Eindhoven, the Hornets flew to Rheine for a day as the Wing advanced to Diepholz for a fortnight before advancing to Reinsehien for a few days of operations. Despite these moves, the squadron peaked to 829 sorties and the pilots flew 1244 hours, which was almost as high as the two previous months combined!

Persistent poor weather in early April necessitated weather recces to see if conditions were fit for operations. On one of these missions, F/O S. E. Messum was killed by enemy flak.

443 group picture 1945

Patrol lines kept shifting ahead as the armies advanced. On the twelfth, the first and second A/Rs led by F/L Terry Watt inflicted much damage on Oldenburg area and S/L De Courcy led his bombing mission successfully on a well-defended freight yard with much damage being observed.

On April 13, the aircraft and pilots rejoined the ground staff at Diepholz for a fortnight of patrols and armed reconnaissances from the fairly comfortable permanent Luftwaffe barracks. S/L De Courcy’s patrol had a successful score of 18 of the 44 vehicles claimed on the eighteenth. Two recces led by F/L H. C. Charlesworth left the autobahn and adjacent roads near Hollenstedy littered with destroyed Hun transport. On these operations, the pilots noticed that the enemy was once again using the Red Cross emblem to give immunity to his transport, for staff cars and guns were seen mixed in with convoys of ambulances.

On April 20, Adolf Hitler’s last birthday in his tottering empire and crumbling capital, the Hornet squadron had the honour of escorting General Eisenhower on a flight from Venlo to Diepholz to visit General Montgomery.

While attacking a train near Goldberg, Bob Marsh’s Spitfire was downed by flak as he attacked a train. After a fortnight of surviving on potatoes and wild duck eggs, Marsh returned to the squadron. F/O H. R. Hanscom did not return from his mission.

Although the war was now clearly in its last stages, the enemy flak gunners were fighting through to the bitter end and they gave P/O Pero Gomm and F/O Phil Bockman an impressive demonstration of their accuracy when they returned with several holes in their Spitfires. On another patrol, several vehicles were destroyed and a couple of Arado 234 jets escaped with possible damage. While the Hornets were assisting the Second Army occupying Bremen, they noticed 40 or 50 enemy aircraft clustered on Schwerin aerodrome. S/L De Courcy led eight Spitfires in two sections at 5,000 feet until they were about ten miles from the aerodrome. They dived to the deck and at 320 mph made a strafing run across it at ground-level from west to east. In all, there appeared to be about 60 JU 87s (Stuka), FW 190s, JU 88s and other assorted types parked in several lines. Tommy De Courcy reported, “I kept on spraying as I went.” Greene, Dobson, Conway, Finley, Taylor, Tucker and Dilworth had similar claims. The Hornet attack was so well coordinated that flak did not open until they were well clear of the field.

An hour and a half later, De Courcy, Dodson, Finley, Taylor, Tucker, Dilworth, Dalton and Watt used the same tactics at Neustadt aerodrome where about 25 Me 109s and FW 190s were parked. Although much damage was reported, F/O A. J. Dilworth crashed in flames on the aerodrome when met by vicious flak. Dilworth was a new pilot who had joined 443 just a week before he was killed in action.

The next morning, two more pilots were missing when F/O W. G. Conway hit a telephone pole while strafing vehicles and F/L Terry Watt’s glycol leak caused him to crash. Both pilots were returned shortly after hostilities ended. While at Diepholz, No. 443 squadron destroyed four aircraft and damaged fourteen more in attacks on airfields. The pilots also claimed more than four railroad cuts, one building, 68 motor vehicles, 13 horse-drawn transports, and four freight cars destroyed, as well as eight locomotives, 13 freight cars, 135 MET and seven horse-wagons damaged. Here, the Hornets lost five pilots and had several others wounded or injured.

Bad weather forced three pilots to land at Reinsehien and the next day, April 28, the remainder of the squadron followed. This new field allowed 127 Wing to closely support the Second Army on its final drive. W/C J. F. Edwards, a veteran of the Western Desert where he had won the DFM and DFC and Bar, had succeeded W/C J. E. Johnson as Wing Commander Flying early in April. He led patrols over Lubeck and witnessed a dogfight between some RCAF Spitfires and some Mes and FWs that had tried to bomb the bridgehead. The Hornets were not able to get into the scrap but saw six of the enemy dive to their death.

On May Day, F/L Warman led six pilots on a shooting spree that destroyed 16 vehicles and damaged 21 more. The next day, S/L De Courcy, F/L Turcott and F/Os Morrow and Hill accounted for 32 vehicles of the squadron total of 17 MET destroyed and 31 damaged for the day. The diary commented: “Everything is mixed up now. Pilots don’t know whether they are in Russian, German or British territory. The Germans are starting to blow up their aircraft and aerodromes.” On one sortie, Warmar and Dalton saw 30 railway wagons explode and Dodson and Sim reported several aircraft burning on the ground so the British would not get to use them.

The Hornets also took an active part in demolition of the Luftwaffe. F/O H. F. Packard riddled an HE III so thoroughly that the port engine tumbled out of its mounting. Two more Heinkels were damaged by Finley, Clow and Stevenson.

On May 3, the British Second Army made contact with the Russians at Grabow and drove through to the Baltic coast at Wismar and Lubeck. The fighter pilots shifted their activity northward. Twenty-six MET were destroyed, 47 were damaged; eight freight cars and four locomotives were shot up, six of the cars being destroyed; a trawler was sunk and seven more were well battered. While returning from the day’s final operation, S/L De Courcy and five companions attacked a JU 88 coming across Eckernforder Bay; Sim, Marshall and the CO peppered it into a field. It was the Hornet squadron’s 36th and last victory in air combat.

More ground targets and shipping strikes on May 4 destroyed five and damaged a further five vehicles. When the pilots landed at Reinsehlen at four o’clock that afternoon, No. 443 Squadron’s part in the long struggle was over. On the heath at Lunenburg that day, the German forces in Holland, north-western Germany and Denmark had surrendered unconditionally to Field-Marshal Montgomery, the cease fire to be effective at 0800 on May 5.

The squadron’s work in the last few days had earned S/L De Courcy and Hart Findley DFCs.

Post War May 1945-March 1946

When VE Day ended the war in Europe, No. 443 Squadron had 29 pilots on strength, led by the Commanding Officer S/L T. J. De Courcy, and including H. R. Finley and R. P. Marsh, both recently returned from enemy territory.

Most of the pilots were more than half way through their tours and could expect early repatriation, although some volunteered for the Pacific and others to remain in Europe with the occupation forces. The weeks immediately following cessation of hostilities were filled with rumour and speculation. While waiting for the inevitable uncertainty to be clarified, the squadron continued practice flying, did escort jobs for Dakotas flying to and from Copenhagen, and participated in “fly pasts” over Bremen and other German cities and former Luftwaffe airfields.

There now was much free time for sports, leave and decorating Spitfires with names and yellow hornet badges and the like.

There was a tragic loss in early June when S/L Tommy De Courcy was killed in a car accident near Hamburg. In simple words, the squadron diarist paid tribute to their Commanding Officer. “It is beyond the power of this narrator to fittingly express our emotion. He was deeply admired and respected among the members of his squadron, and will be sincerely mourned by all who knew him. S/L H. R. Finley took command of the Hornets.

Late in June 1945, the squadron was informed that it had been selected for the British Air Forces of Occupation in Germany. As part of No. 126 Wing, along with 411, 412 and 416 Squadrons, they moved to Uetersen in early July, and were soon on the scrounge to make their new home habitable. Apart from the diversions of an air show in Brussels and various sports endeavours, the summer is probably summed up by this quote from the squadron diary “Don’t they ever have summer in this horrible country.”

During formation practice in September, a mid-air damaged three Spits, but all pilots escaped without serious injury resulting in this quote “The squadron just doesn’t believe in tight formation anymore.”

The end of September 1945 saw most pilots who had flown on operations with No. 443 start home on the repatriation mill. This included Phil Bockman who had started in November 1942 with a five month break due to injury. Hart Finley’s tour also finished as he departed westward for Canada. As a result, only eight pilots remained of the group which had comprised the squadron on VE Day.

The replacements continued to arrive including the new Commanding Officer, S/L C. D. J. Bricker DFC, a veteran fighter-recce pilot who had distinguished himself on photo missions with No. 430 Squadron.

Autumn and winter found sports and prevalent fog hampering flying. In addition to continuous personnel changes, by year’s end the squadron was composed entirely of “Occupational pilots”.

A valiant effort was made on the last day of 1945 to attain the squadron’s monthly flying hours. Although the final total fell about one hour short of target, 443 held first place among the squadrons and received honourable mention in 83 Group’s report for having fewest accidents per flying hour; the Squadron had been accident free for 10 weeks. In January 1946, the Hornets began converting to Spitfire XIVs received from disbanded Belgian and Australian squadrons.

The squadron’s no-accident flying record received a rude jolt January 18 through no fault of the Hornets. Three Spitfires were flying in formation over the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal when a USAAF Thunderbolt came along diving straight into F/L Roosenti’s machine, tearing off the port wing. The aircraft rolled over and burst into flame, but the pilot was able to get free and parachuted to safety with just a few cuts and bruises.

After the extensive changes in personnel in the last months of 1945, there were fewer alterations in the new year. Since No. 443’s arrival in the overseas theater, the airmen who serviced the aircraft had belonged to a separate unit, 6443 Servicing Echelon. This “paper” distinction was abolished, and the airmen were posted to Squadron strength (23 pilots, approx 95 servicing).

On March 8, 1946, flying activities ended, and after the rumour-mongers had enjoyed three days freedom to spread their “gen”, it was officially announced that the Wing was being disbanded, dispelling the squadron’s hopes that it would return to Canada—the way it had departed—as a unit. The pilots were posted to Topcliffe for repatriation; the ground crews were posted to other RCAF units overseas or (the luckier chaps) to England for repatriation. And on March 15, 1946, No. 443 Squadron officially ended its tour with the British Air Forces of Occupation. Most of the personnel remained at Uetersen for a few days longer; the pilots flew their aircraft across to England on the 19th and by the end of March, virtually everyone had gone and 126 Wing was disbanded.

At the time of disbandment the Hornets comprised: S/L C. D. Bricker DFC, F/Ls F. E. Hanton DFC, W. H. Gill DFC, C. B. Murray DFC, T. S. Burleigh, L. J. Burnett, K. S. Meyer, J. H. Cook, N. H. Rassenti, F/Os 0. A. Dodson, W. A. Marshall, C. J. Stojan, H. Sewell, R. E. Lowry, L. A. Pyke, R. W. Perkin, D. A. Mitchell, C. J. Grant, J. H. Tetros, J. H. Syrett, J. K. Burns, and P/Os J. A. Arsenault and M. W. Richman. Of these, Dodson, Grant and Marshall had been with No. 443 since before VE-Day.

 

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Jim O’Toole – Ripples in the water

My wife said this…

Ripples in the water

This is a comment I got with this post about Jim O’Toole.

Hi, my Dad is Jim O’Toole. We were visiting him this summer and went up to Comox to the museum. During our visit my Dad was looking at the photo you have of the pilots in front of the Spitfire. He started pointing out a fair amount of them and naming all but a couple. My sister Maureen has the list of names. If you ask Pat Murphy he can put you in touch.

ORIGINAL POST

Pat Murphy has been contributing to my blog about 403 Squadron.

Last night he sent me this picture of Charles Charlesworth who flew with 443 Squadron.

In a sense this post belongs here but I posted it first on my other blog.

443 Squadron Art Sager Squadron Leader 001

Pat is a subscriber to my other blog and he saw the post I wrote about Chuck Charlesworth.

Remember I had posted it there by mistake.

Pat Murphy wrote this message…

Pierre really enjoying your recent postings and it’s always nice to see the Smith Brothers story again. Here is a picture that Art Sager gave me in 2004 of Charles Charlesworth at the far left, Art in the middle and Lloyd Hunt sitting on a jeep. It was taken in March 1945. Those are the only details I have.

Pat is the contributor who wrote the story about the Smith brothers.

He had more to say and share.

Art also gave me a 443 Squadron group photo probably taken around the same time. We never got around to identifying all those Spitfire pilots but you can see Art second from left, Charlesworth far right and Jim O’Toole is in the bottom row second from right without the hat.

443 Squadron Art Sager Squadron Leader

Pat had even more in store…

Jim lives in Nanaimo and recently celebrated his 90 birthday at the Vancouver Island Military Museum with his family in attendance, Stocky Edwards came down from Comox to say a few words and it was a fun time to see these two Spitfire pilots together. Stocky was the Wing Commander for the last few months of the War.

JIM_O'Toole2-cropJim O’Toole on the left with Stocky Edwards

He had still more…

I’ve also included a picture of Jim O’Toole in his Spitfire.

All 3.9 megs of it!

Jim O'TooleJim O’Toole

It was so beautiful that I could not resist sprucing it up a little.

Jim O'Toole modified

We have a copy of Jim’s log book in the museum and it makes for interesting reading.

Keep up the good work

Work?

This is not work.

This is a passion!

TO BE CONTINUED…

Jim O’Toole

Pat Murphy has been contributing to my blog about 403 Squadron.

Last night he sent me this picture of Charles Charlesworth who flew with 443 Squadron.

In a sense this post belongs here but I posted it first on my other blog.

443 Squadron Art Sager Squadron Leader 001

Pat is a subscriber to my other blog and he saw the post I wrote about Chuck Charlesworth.

Remember I had posted it there by mistake.

Pat Murphy wrote this message…

Pierre really enjoying your recent postings and it’s always nice to see the Smith Brothers story again. Here is a picture that Art Sager gave me in 2004 of Charles Charlesworth at the far left, Art in the middle and Lloyd Hunt sitting on a jeep. It was taken in March 1945. Those are the only details I have.

Pat is the contributor who wrote the story about the Smith brothers.

He had more to say and share.

Art also gave me a 443 Squadron group photo probably taken around the same time. We never got around to identifying all those Spitfire pilots but you can see Art second from left, Charlesworth far right and Jim O’Toole is in the bottom row second from right without the hat.

443 Squadron Art Sager Squadron Leader

Pat had even more in store…

Jim lives in Nanaimo and recently celebrated his 90 birthday at the Vancouver Island Military Museum with his family in attendance, Stocky Edwards came down from Comox to say a few words and it was a fun time to see these two Spitfire pilots together. Stocky was the Wing Commander for the last few months of the War.

JIM_O'Toole2-cropJim O’Toole on the left with Stocky Edwards

He had still more…

I’ve also included a picture of Jim O’Toole in his Spitfire.

All 3.9 megs of it!

Jim O'TooleJim O’Toole

It was so beautiful that I could not resist sprucing it up a little.

Jim O'Toole modified

We have a copy of Jim’s log book in the museum and it makes for interesting reading.

Keep up the good work

Work?

This is not work.

This is a passion!

Paul Piche Killed

I had never noticed this before on these two pages sent by Arthur Horrell’s grandniece Nicole…

One picture is missing from this page of Art Sager’s pictures of the men under his command.

443photo3_0001

In fact two pictures are missing.

443photo1

I wonder who was Chuck Charlesworth?

Is it him mentioned on this Website?

Weather clear and warm, visibility very good. Squadron took part in front line patrols again today without incident. This airfield was subjected to an attack by enemy anti-personnel bombs at approximately 1100 hrs. It is likely that only one large container of these bombs was dropped; there were two casualties among our pilots, W/O Gaudet received a slight cut on one arm which was treated immediately and this pilot cleared as fit; F/L H. C. Charlesworth was injured in the left arm and has been transferred to Casualty Clearing Station at Eindhoven for X-Ray to determine the extent of his injuries which at present are considered only slight. There were two other attacks later in the day but not in our immediate vicinity. P/O P.C. Bookman returned this evening with a replacement Spitfire for the Squadron. Personnel busily engaged in “digging-in” around their living quarters as only protection against enemy attack by missiles from the air.

Source

buzzing the airfield

Two Spitfires of 443 Squadron take off
at radio-mast height of flying control van in Holland.

Is it just another name popping out also on this Website…?

Course 17: January 4 – March 7, 1941

Group Captain Frank McGill presented wings and addressed the graduates.

“The army, navy and air force all have an equal job to do in winning the war and no service alone will achieve the victory.”

(J/4554) Douglas Bruce Annan (DFC, AFC), (J/4556) John Wylie Wood, Shawness, Alberta; (J/4557) Cyril Victor Mark – AFC, +(J/4560) Arthur Williams – 74 Sqn.; (J/4561) Roderick Illingsworth Alpine Smith – DFC & Bar – 126 Sqn.; (J/4562) John Eric Hockey – POW 434 Sqn.; +(J/4563) George Ketchen Graham, Belleville; +(J/4566) Warren Ainsley Roberts – 405 Sqn.; (J/4567) James Weir Clarke; (R/60421) Robert Clarence Pearson, (R/60522) Louis Rolston Babb, (R/74146) Robert Kennedy Storie, John ‘Jack’ Robertson, Hammond, Indiana; Arthur Pratt Harrison, Owen Sound; George L. Sprague, Ottawa; (R/71258) Francis Hugh Belcher – POW; Chuck McLean, Brockville;

Harold Clinton Charlesworth – 12/601/443 Sqns., Chemainus, B.C., +(R/74596 – J/15097)

Thomas Douglas Holden – 411 Sqn., Chilliwack, B.C., Charles A. Rainsforth – 198 Sqn., Edmonton; (J/18793) Michael Rico Sharun – DFC 416 Sqn., St. Paul, Alberta; J.G.K. Barrie, Edmonton; James Weir Clark, Hezenmore, Alberta; +(R/54314) William George Pavely – 615 Sqn., Ottawa; R.G. Smith, Chatham; James Cartwright Uniacke Bayly – 402 Sqn., Toronto; E. Heid, Toronto; Herbert Hugh Hinton, Streetsville; J.D. Marsh, Ft. William; J.W. Munro, Madoc; +(J/13467) William Robert Widdess – 198 Sqn., Peterborough; (R77007 – J/15970) William Frank Kenwood – 411 Sqn., POW 92 Sqn., Westmount, Que.; L.B. Madden, St. Laurent; +(J/23021) Walter Gerard O’Hagan – 402 Sqn., Montreal; +(J/13996) Arnold Ridgway, Outremont; M.A.C. Smith, Rougemont Station; (J/15056) Richard Attwill Ellis – DFC 412 Sqn., Montreal West; J.C. Marshall, Montreal; (R/74035) Joseph Bernard Marius Vilandre – POW 111 Sqn., Montreal; R.S. Bowker, Granby; (J/21668) Bernard Bryce Miller – DFC 428 Sqn., Carman, Manitoba

Not much information, but at least I know he did not get killed.

Footnote

After writing this article, I found more information about F/L Charlesworth on this Website.

TWO STUKAS ARE CITY ACE’S ONE-DAY SCORE
F/L Don Gordon Registers Ninth Kill Supporting Canadians
in West Front Drive

9 Feb. 1945 – F/L Don C. Gordon, D.F.C., shot down two German Stukas Thursday, shared in downing a third, and brought his score to nine planes destroyed, at least four probables and at least nine damaged.

Son of Mr. and Mrs. R. D. Gordon, of 3812 West Sixteenth, he was flying in support of the Canadian offensive. The “kills” were made over the front southeast of Wesel.

Two other B.C. flyers, F/L Phil Blades, Victoria, and F/L H. C. Charlesworth, Chemainus, took part in the destruction of two locomotives and damaged two more southwest of Hamm.

They were part of a group of Canadian Typhoons and Spitfires who flew more than 300 sorties from dawn to dusk Thursday, striking German rail and road systems and border towns.

F/L Gordon, 25, flying with the Caribou Spitfire squadron, adopted by New Westminster, is a veteran of Channel dogfights, El Alamein and Ceylon.

His Distinguished Flying Cross award, mentioned in a report from London, is a surprise to his mother. She heard some time ago, however, that he had been recommended for the award.

F/L Gordon was born in Vancouver and educated at Kitchener, Point Grey Junior High and Lord Byng High schools. He enlisted in June 1940; went overseas in the summer of 1941. He was home on three weeks’ leave last summer after completing two tours of operations in three different theatres of war. He is now on his third tour.
A brother, F/O Merritt Gordon, is stationed at Dauphin, Man., and his sister, F/Sgt. Margaret Gordon, is with the R.C.A.F. overseas.

F/L Blades and F/L Charlesworth are both flying with the Red Indian Spitfire squadron. F/L Charlesworth is also a veteran of the North African campaign.

More here.

Waterdown Flyer Mentioned
Green, recently appointed flight commander, also saw fragments fly off the aircraft he attacked but lost sight of it later and could only claim it as “damaged.”

Other Canadians from the squadron who helped repel the Nazi attackers included Flight-Lieut. John P. McColl, Waterdown, Ont.; Pilot-Officers R.I. Alpine Smith, Regina; Jack Brookhouse, Montreal; Lloyd Stewart, Fair Hills, Sask.; Harold Charlesworth, Chemainis, Vancouver Island; Richard A. Ellis, Montreal; Warrant Officer J.D. Stevenson, Winnipeg; Flight-Sgt .Stewart Pearce, Toronto, and Sgt. W.F. Aldcorn, Gouverneur, Sask. Warrant Officers Francis MacRae, Montreal navigator, and Sgt. Pilot Albert Attwell, of Toronto, both agree “you’re safer in the air than on the ground.”

MacRae came back from a hazardous bombing trip to a French arms center. After reporting to the intelligence officer, he went to the officers’ mess for a hot drink before retiring. The mess floor had been freshly polished and as he walked in the door he slipped and fell and fractured his left knee.

Attwell also came through the perils of a bombing attack across the channel. Returning from St. Nazaire, his aircraft crashed into a hill in England and he suffered a fracture of the left leg.

The two Canadians share neighboring beds in the same hospital.

I have a feeling someday a relative of Chuck Charlesworth will write a comment or contact me like Paul Piché’s granddaughter did this week.

Before I Forget

Patricia told me so many stories about her father in the 30 minute phone call we had yesterday that I would hate to forget…

That her father knew Johnny Johnson…

That her father knew Art Sager and that she had talked with him about her father…

That her father was an instructor in St. Eugene, in Ontario…

That he was always sad to see young pilots leaving the training school with so little experience and get killed overseas…

That he liked to fly low… very low… under bridges… under trees…

That one time while buzzing a field he killed a cow…

Patricia told me:

Who would be interested in all those anecdotes of a pilot shot down on October 11, 1944?

I told her father deserves to be remembered.

443 group picture Louis Paul Émile Piché

1911-1944

As well as all these airmen on this picture.443 group picture

And these pilots whose pictures were sent to Nicole Morley by Art Sager’s son.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

I would hate to forget that Nicole Morley is the one person responsible for all this…

Her granduncle was shot down with Paul Piché on October 11, 1944, and she wanted to know more.

443photo2

She still does.

To contact me, please use this form or write a comment.

De la collection d’Art Sager: Don Walz porté disparu

This will be the translation of a post about Don Walz. I will do it in my spare times so you will have to come back often until I have completed it. The original is quite long so it will take some time to complete it.

You can click here for the original.

Samuel Magdelaine, who lives in France, wrote a comment early June saying his grandfather was the one who saved the life of Don Walz back in 1944. He asked me to translate it in French for people interested in that story but who can’t read English.

Art Sager’s son had shared some pictures from his father’s collection.

Art Sager in Spitfire

Art Sager

He sent them to Nicole Morley, who was Arthur Horrell’s niece. Nicole sent them to me.

Here is the translation with links and pictures as an added bonus.

Don Walz était surnommé le Frisé.

Art Sager avait cette photo dans sa collection de photos des pilotes de l’escadrille 443.

Don Walz

Don Walz a survécu à la guerre. Je n’ai trouvé qu’une seule photo de lui sur Internet.

Cliquez ici.

WalzDMCrestwyndFarm

Donald Melvin Walz

Maintenant cliquez ici pour la source de cet article.

Don Walz — pilote de Spitfire

Don Walz de Moose Jaw, qui avait servi dans l’Aviation royale canadienne (RCAF) durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale était un pilote d’avion de chasse, avait rencontré Roland Groome du chapitre de la Canadian Aviation Historical Society (CAHS) le 12  décembre 1996. À notre grand regret Don est décédé en mai 2004. Cette page Web veut lui rend hommage.

Don Walz regarda de côté et vit un FW-190 qui arrivait à 90 degrés… Don était un cible parfaite. Une explosion derrière son siège blindé signalait aussitôt que le réservoir d’essence de son Spitfire IX venait d’exploser.

Que faire?

Comment il en était arrivé indéniablement dans cette fâcheuse position durant l’été 1944 était le sujet de la rencontre le 12 décembre avec Roland Groome du chapitre de la Canadian Aviation Historical Society.

Walz était plutôt une exception parmi les aviateurs de la Seconde Guerre mondiale ayant reçu son brevet de pilote privé avant la guerre. Il était copropriétaire d’un de Havilland Puss Moth et il avait à son crédit 37 heures de temps de vol.

De Havilland Puss Moth

Bien que le travail de Don à la ferme paternelle située dans le district de Moose Jaw aurait pu l’exempter de son service militaire, « Je dis à mon père que je DEVAIS y aller ». Il s’engagea dans l’Aviation royale canadienne (RCAF) au début de 1941, bien qu’il ne fut appelé sous les drapeaux que tard durant cette année. Il voulait bien sûr devenir pilote de chasse, mais à cause de son expérience antérieure comme pilote, il fut nommé instructeur, d’abord dans des écoles d’entraînement de Moose Jaw et de Trenton avant d’être affecté à High River en Alberta. Parce que beaucoup d’écoles du Programme d’entraînement aérien du Commonwealth britannique (BCATP) étaient opérées par des entrepreneurs civils, il reçut aussi un congé prolongé de l’Aviation royale canadienne.

Don fut instructeur pendant environ 18 mois avant que lui et quelques autres instructeurs ne retournent dans l’ARC (RCAF). Il fut envoyé à Toronto (pour un peu de “marche militaire”) puis à Dunnville en Ontario, pour un entraînement sur Harvards. «J’ai appris à aimer le vol acrobatique», se rappella-t-il. «Et je voulais toujours devenir pilote de chasse.»

Il fut ensuite affecté à l’escadrille 127 du Home War Establishment à Dartmouth en Nouvelle-Écosse, bien que son arrivée ait été retardée par une visite à une ancienne amie à Toronto, manquant ainsi son train! Il envoya un télégramme au quartier-général du Eastern Air Command à Halifax disant qu’il avait été «retardé contre son propre gré», ce qui ne fut pas très bien accueilli par l’officier qui avait reçu son message. «La première chose qu’il m’a dite fut qu’il n’existait pas l’expression “retardé contre son propre gré dans la terminologie de l’armée de l’air !”

L’escadrille 127, équipée de Hurricanes, effectuaient des patrouilles de reconnaissance au-dessus d’Halifax et des environs, en plus d’effectuer des vols en formation, des attaques simulées de chasseurs « et toutes les sortes de choses du genre». Par la suite, l’escadrille fut envoyée sur une base isolée à Gander à Terre-Neuve, ce qui s’avéra finalement être «une assez bonne base aérienne avec tout ce que vous souhaiteriez y retrouver.»

Le commandant de l’escadrille était un expatrié du Texas dont une des excentricités était de porter des bottes de cowboy même lors des défilés militaires. Il fut relevé de ses fonctions après de multiples frasques («un chic type, mais il était assez spécial»). L’escadrille 127 fut alors sous le commandement du Squadron Leader P .A. “Paddy” Gilbertson, un Canadien vétéran de la Bataille d’Angleterre. L’escadrille revint à Dartmouth, puis retourna à Gander. En se promenant sur le tarmac de la base, Walz et un autre commandant se retrouvèrent près d’une paire d’avions de transport légers Norseman laissés par leurs équipages du Ferry Command.

Norseman

Note

The above picture of a Norseman is from the collection of Eddy Dubois. Eddy was Larry Dubois’ brother. Larry is on the left. Larry died on December 18, 1944. I wrote about Larry on my other blog Lest We Forget. Click here. Eddy found my blog and wrote me. He then shared more than 100 pictures from his own personal collection. I have posted everything on that blog as a homage to Eddy and Larry. Click here for all the posts related to the Dubois.

Note

La photo du Norseman vient de la collection d’Eddy Dubois. Eddy était le frère de Larry Dubois. Larry est l’aviateur à gauche. Larry est mort le 18 décembre 1944. J’ai écrit à propos de Larry sur mon autre blogue Lest We Forget. Cliquez ici. Eddy a découvert mon blogue et m’a écrit. Il a ensuite partagé plus de 100 photos de sa collection personnelle. J’ai tout mis sur ce blogue afin de rendre hommage à Eddy et Larry. Cliquez ici pour tous mes billets sur les frères Dubois.

 .

Gilbertson leur cria: «Avez-vous déjà piloté un Norseman?”

«Bien sûr! ” Ils mentaient.

L’autre pilote partit peu de temps après pour St. John’s et se vit forcer d’atterrir honteusement sur une plage.

Walz fut assigné pour amener un docteur dans une localité rurale sur un Norseman équippé de skis. À l’atterrissage sur un lac gelé, Walz eut de la difficulté à stopper. «J’ai just hurlé au docteur: “Sautez! Vous allez devoir sauter!” Il sauta et Don put arrêter après avoir passé par-dessus sur le quai. «Ce fut la fin de mes vols sur Norseman.»

Walz l’avait aussi échappé belle une autre fois sur la glace quand Walz laissa Gilbertson piloter un Tiger Moth équipés de skis pour aller récupérer un Hurricane qui s’était écrasé. Lors de l’atterrissage, Don (dans le siège arrière du biplan) était horrifié de voir de l’eau surgir derrière les skis. La glace sous l’avion était en train de céder!

«L’eau recouvrait les skis, dit-il. C’est la dernière fois que j’ai volé avec lui!»

Don obtint une permission autour de Noël 1943, mais elle fut coupée court avec l’ordre de rejoindre la base à Dartmouth. L’escadrille 127 était envoyé outre-mer. Malheureusement, sur le transport de troupes, Don attrapa les oreillons. Arrivés au quai de Liverpool, les autres aviateurs se rendirent à Bournemouth pendant que Don fut hospitalisé. «J’ai passé deux ou trois semaines à l’hôpital. Quand j’ai quitté, j’avais toujours les oreillons. Une femme médecin me demanda si j’avais encore les glandes enflées. Je lui ai dit que non même si c’était faux.»

Il se rendit par la suite à Bournemouth rejoindre l’escadrille 127 (désormais renommée l’escadrille 443 Squadron) basée à Digby. Au moment où Walz rejoint l’escadrille, la 443 vole sur Spitfire Mk V sous le commandement du Squadron Leader Henry Wallace “Wally” McLeod, originaire de la ville de Régina qui avait 11 (d’autres sources mentionnent 13) victoires aériennes au-dessus de Malte durant l’été de 1942.

«Il était un rude gaillard; un vrai pilote de chasse, un pilote exceptionnel,» se rappelle Walz. «Il était un chic type. Si vous faisiez une erreur, vous le saviez.»

Lors de leur première rencontre, Walz vit le nouveau commandant lui lancer le manuel de l’avion, pointer un avion et dire: «Voilà ton Spit… maintenant vas-y et vole.»

Le Spitfire, incidemment, était tout un contraste par rapport au Hurricane sur lequel Walz avait fait son entraînement. «Je tirai sur le manche comme on le faisait sur un Hurricane et la première fois j’ai eu la frousse. Il y avait une telle différence entre les deux avions»,dit-il à propos du Spitfire. «On ne pilotait pas un Spitfire. On l’enfilait comme on enfile un vêtement.»

À la fin du printemps 1944, l’escadrille 443, équipée maintenant de Spitfire IX, fut basée sur la côte dans le sud de l’Angleterre. «Notre travail était de se préparer pour l’invasion. Nous déménagions d’un endroit à un autre. Cela permit à l’escadrille de se pratiquer à changer d’une base à une autre.» L’escadrille s’engagea également dans des vols au-dessus de la France occupée tout comme elle effectua des missions de bombardement en piqué, un travail que Walz apprit rapidement à détester. À cause de la D.C.A., Walz comparaissait cela à foncer droit dans un «champ de balles de tennis». Des pilotes lâchaient leur bombe de 250 kg plus tôt que prévu frôlant ainsi les autres Spitfires toujours en piqué. Une de ces bombes, en fait, «me passa sous le nez,» se rappela Don.

Il se rappelle aussi avoir participé à une mission d’escorte de B-26 Marauders qui attaquaient des navires allemands dans la Manche malgré une D.C.A. meurtrière. Il frôla aussi la mort quand lui, McLeod, le Wing Commander  «Johnnie» Johnson (l’as de la RAF qui termina la guerre avec 33 victoires aériennes homologuées) et trois autres pilotes s’envolèrent pour une mission de balayage à basse altitude au-dessus de la France. Johnson remarqua un aérodrome allemand droit devant et ordonna de virer à gauche. Volant à gauche, très à l’intérieur de la formation, Walz se retrouva de plus en plus bas, tellement qu’un fermier français le salua de la main. Il dut éventuellement grimper au-dessus d’une haie dans un nuage de feuilles. Il frôla le sol avant de rejoindre les autres avions. «J’ai eu beaucoup de chance», dit-il.

Lors d’une autre mission de balayage à laquelle participait toutes les escadrilles du Wing 127 avec la 443 volant à basse altitude, Walz aperçut quelques points se dessiner à l’horizon.

«Don, guide-nous vers eux!» lança Johnson à la radio.

Les réservoirs auxiliaires des Spitfires furent largués («si on arrivait à les larguer, nous étions chanceux, car le Spitfire n’était pas fameux comme avion avec ceux-ci»). Il vit six Fw-190 qui volaient alignés de front.

«Prenez les trois à droite», dit Johnson, qui fonça sur les autres . Les Fw-190 virèrent et la bataille commença.

Don plaça son Spitfire sur la queue d’un avion ennemi qui se retourna rapidement sur le dos et piqua vers le sol. Il le suivit, le perdit de vue, puis tira sur le manche et perdit conscience à cause dy voile noir. Il se réveilla à 6000 mètres d’altitude seul dans le ciel.

D’autres points noirs apparurent dans le ciel. Plus de Spitfires. «Jusqu’à ce que je sois de retour vers la base au milieu de la Manche, j’avais six avions avec moi. Ça vous montre combien nous avions été dispersés à cause de la bataille aérienne.»

En tout, le wing avait perdu deux avions contre six du côté des Allemands. «Ce fut une bonne journée pour nous.»

Puis ce fut le Jour-J.

Plus de patrouilles, puis l’escadrille 443 déménagea près des plages du débarquement, un déplacement survenu ironiquement après une matinée de tournées des pubs. «Ce fut la plus drôle des formations que l’on ait jamais vue… ils étaient un peu émêchés.” dit-il en riant.

Ils atterrirent sur une piste poussiéreuse recouverte de plaques de métal d’une base au nom de code B2. Le lendemain, Don guida une patrouille de quatre avions au-dessus de la péninsule de Cherbourg. Le temps était mauvais avec un plafond de 150 mètres.

Ils revenaient à la base B2 quand, à travers la couverture nuageuse, Don remarqua des avions allemands.«Grimpons et allons voir ça de plus près.»Walz dit à son ailier, Gord Ockenden (il était un bon numéro 2, il vous collait aux fesses»).

Ils grimpèrent et Don se plaça derrière le chasseur allemand.

Rien de bien réjouissant. La D.C.A. alliée tirait en direction des deux avions. «Ils continuèrent à le canarder et les obus s’approchaient de plus en plus près de moi au lieu de lui! ” se lamenta Don.

Ses deux canons de 20 mm s’enrayèrent du à la poussière sur la piste de la base B2. Par contre, ses mitrailleuses de .303 fonctionnaient toujours, convaincant le pilote allemand à larguer la verrière de son avion et à sauter en parachute. Une victoire!

Plus tard lors de la même journée, Don amena un autre vol de six avions en direction d’un trou dans les nuages toujours omniprésents, si denses que deux des pilotes durent rebrousser chemin. Au sud et à l’est de Caen, le reste des quatre Spitfires tombèrent au beau milieu d’une large formation d’avions allemands. Il fut déterminé plus tard, dit Don, qu’il y en avait environ 35 qui déménageaient d’une base à une autre sous la pression de l’avance des armées alliées.

Don se mit derrière la queue d’un Fw-190 qui tourna et plongea en piqué. Soudain il entendit son ailier lui crier «Dégage, Don!” Dégage! Ils sont à tes trousses! Pour l’amour de Dieu, dégage!”

Il dégagea en grimpant et en virant pour se placer derrière la queue d’un Me-109.

C’est à ce moment précis qu’il remarqua du coin de l’œil un Fw-190 arrivant perpenticulairement en ouvrant le feu. «J’entendis un bang assourdissant et mon avion a pris feu», dit-il. «En plein dans le réservoir d’essence.»

Don s’éjecta «vraiment rapidement.».  Il ne rappela plus comment et il tenta d’attraper l’anneau du parachute (il sentit que son derrière avait frappé quelque chose et il pensa avoir frappé la queue du Spitfire). «La prochaine chose que je remarquai fut “Tiens va le parachute qui s’ouvre”».

Se balançant sous le parachute à 500 mètres, il ne pouvait voir qu’un seul Spitfire avec trois Fw-l90 à ses trousses et un quatrième qui se dirigeait droit sur lui.. «Je jure qu’il allait me tirer dessus, ce que certains faisaient à l’occasion.»

Il ne tira pas heureusement et Don heurta le sol et se cacha dans un pâturage pendant que les soldats allemands cherchaient dans un champ de blé tout près. Comment près? «Ils passèrent d’aussi près que d’ici à la fin de cette table», dit-il lors de la rencontre. «Ils fouillèrent dans le champ de blé, mais ne me virent pas.»

Don fit l’observation suivante. Les soldats de la patrouille n’étaient pas des fils de fermier, car ils auraient remarqué les chevaux qui se tenaient au-dessus de l’aviateur et qui le reniflaient,  un signe flagrant si quelqu’un l’avait remarqué.

«J’avais bien évalué l’emplacement du champ de blé et je pus ainsi le traverser en rampant. Je pouvais voit les éclairs au-dessus des têtes de pont où les combats faisaient rage.»

Le lendemain, par contre, il entendit des voix. Saisissant son revolver, il se retrouva face à face avec un fermier français accompagné de son fils. Ceux-ci lui donnèrent des œufs crus à manger et une vieille veste. Don ajouta à ce déguisement en confectionnant un béret grossier avec la doublure de la veste. Il rencontra ensuite un autre fermier avec son fils qui fauchaient du foin. Se disant «Canadien» et gesticulant ne donnèrent aucun résultat bien que le fils du fermier remplaça le béret de Don par le sien. «C’est la dernière fois que je vis ces deux-là.»

Après qu’il se fut caché dans une étable, Don arriva face à face devant une troisième fermier (“Il a eu toute une frousse quand il m’a vu!”) qui lui donna un rasoir pour se raser, puis lui fit signe de partir.

L’aviateurdormit dans une remise pour passer la nuit, mais il ne se sentait pas à l’aise. Il décida de partir et, une fois rendu dans un autre champ de blé, il vit des étincelles orange — des cigarettes.

“What I’d crawled up was the Caen-Calais highway and they (the Germans) had men along it in foxholes.”

By the next morning, Don, hungry and burned, was considering surrendering — until four Frenchmen found him. There was more muttering of “Canada! Canada!” — until the men told him to wait. Don was sure the Germans were being summoned, but the next arrival was the local gendarme, who started him on his way to a French family in which the father had been an interpreter during the First World War and therefore spoke good English. From then on, when the German soldiers knocked at the outer door and demanded wine, the wife would deal with them, “then come in and laugh to beat the band because they didn’t realize there was a Canadian on the other side of the door.”

This charade ended when the Germans decided to clear the town of its inhabitants, who found themselves in trucks, Don being paired with a French woman and her child and passed off as deaf and dumb. “It’s not the easiest thing to do because you just don’t know when you’re going to make a mistake,” he said.

Adding to the stress was the distinct possibility Allied fighters would mistake the convoy for one carrying German troops.

“I’m not going to be deaf and dumb if I hear the engines pick up speed! ” he reasoned — though this threat did not arise.

Passing through the hands of a number of French resistance workers, Don ended up south of the Normandy fighting, staying hidden for about three weeks on a farm and learning to speak French until the Germans pulled out and he found a nearby American engineer unit that was salvaging tanks and vehicles. Despite a particularly hard grilling by one American officer (“He was just about as bad as the Germans”), Don hit it off with the other Americans, happily using his new facility in French to find wine for them all. “They said, ‘we’re not letting you go! You stay with us. You’re pretty handy .”‘ he recalled with a grin.

His next dealing with our American cousins was equally entrepreneurial, shall we say.

After returning to 443 Squadron via Britain (“I had to fight like Sam Hill to stay; they were going to send me home.”) he found 443 Squadron near Everaux, where off-duty pilots once found an unoccupied U .S. Army jeep near a cathouse, “sitting there, all the rifles and the Tommy guns in it.”

Jeeps were in short supply right after the invasion, so this example was quickly driven back to 443’s airstrip. When military police showed up the next day, “it was there, but it was a Canadian jeep now, all repainted and such, in the middle of the night.”

Another American jeep was shortly thereafter acquired in the same unconventional way, “but the group captain wouldn’t let us keep that one,” he laughed. “We had to give it back.”

By late September, the squadron was well into Belgium. An operation on Sept. 27th saw 443 Squadron and another squadron get airborne and learn over the radio that “there was a lot of action around Nijmegen”.

Arriving at the scene, Don spotted an Me 109 through a hole in the clouds and fastened onto his tail. “The guy saw me coming,” Don recalled. “What he did was drop his gear and drop everything.”

To avoid overshooting, Don did the same and at one point ended up abreast of the German — who then retracted his gear and headed for a cloud. “I got him just as he started to disappear in the cloud,” Don said. “The cloud turned blood red and I had got another one.”

Sadly, this was also the fight in which Wally McLeod was killed. Hugh Halliday’s biography of McLeod in the 1978 book The Tumbling Sky credits McLeod with 19 confirmed kills, one probable and 9.25 damaged. Other sources give him 22 kills, the differences being explained by, as Halliday points out, unclear records on embattled Malta. Commented Don: “He was quite a guy; quite a fighter pilot.”

In a chat after the meeting, Don told me that McLeod “had good eyesight and great determination; he was very aggressive; when he got on to a German, he would follow him clean to Berlin! He did a few times — not to Berlin, of course. You could always tell what he said … you’d hear it over the airplane radio: “Take that, you bastard!” He was very, very aggressive.”

One of the next stops was Brussels, where the squadron, in an exchange of roles, briefly became the target of German bombing, with Me-262 jets occasionally dropping anti-personnel bombs. A loud bang would signal this newfangled munitions’ arrival, then a number of grenade-size bomblets would pop out and explode.

Two stories illustrate that tense period: one saw 443’s pilots getting a lecture from a British group captain, who, being unfamiliar with the delayed action of these bombs, declared, “When you hear a bomb, it’s too late!” However, when a bomb did arrive, “he was down there before the rest of us!” Don laughed.

Another day found Walz and other pilots sitting in their idling aircraft when they realized a bombing raid was in progress — and collectively decided the best defence was getting into the air. “Everybody opened their throttles and went over fences, went over everything, but nobody got hit.” Don, incidentally, was in Britain on a course when Operation Bodenplatte, the great German air offensive against Allied bases on Jan. 1, 1945 took place.

One “trip” in April 1945 found Don flying with a new pilot and confronted by a strange aircraft. “I could have got it because it was coming straight on. All I had to do was drop my nose and shoot, but I didn’t because I didn’t know what it was.”

Walz and his wingman later realized they had come face-to-face with an Me 262 jet fighter. Disappointed, they had to content themselves with strafing, during which Don had the sensation of twigs hitting his aircraft’s wings. It was actually light anti-aircraft fire.

“Red leader, you’ve been hit!” the rookie wingman told him.

Don didn’t think so, but by the time he’d gained altitude, “the gauges were off the clock”.

When he radioed that he was bailing out, all he heard was a polite, “Cheerio!”

There was no escape this time. Don was quickly captured, spending nine days in interrogation. One German intelligence officer happened to speak excellent English. “How are you?” he asked the Canuck, who replied: “OK, but it’s damned cold in that cellar.”

“It would be cold in Canada, too, if you weren’t here bombing Germany!” the German snapped back.

Even though Germany was collapsing, Don was sent to a PoW camp, where he became the officer in charge of billeting during a march southward through Germany.

During it, USAAF Thunderbolts spotted the column — whereupon remarkable things happened.

As German guards vainly shouted for order, PoWs, some of them exhausted only a few minutes earlier , began leaping over fences to get away from the P-47s’ attentions.

Early May saw the war’s end,”and the next thing, you know, the Germans were the prisoners and we were in charge” — not only of themselves, but a large number of adjacent Russians.

“I never want to fight these guys,” confided Don to a South African buddy, “’cause they’re a tough-looking bunch”.

Après la libération, Don retourna à Londres par avion, rencontra la Reine lors d’une cérémonie, puis revint au Canada. Don, qui fut crédité de quatre victoires homologuées, demeura dans le domaine de l’aviation en œuvrant dans une entreprise commerciale de poudrage aérien des cultures à Moose Jaw. Mais cela, comme on le dit si bien, est une toute autre histoire.

-Rapporté par Will Chabun

443_spit Walz

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Art Sager’s Obituary

Art Sager in Spitfire

SAGER, Arthur Hazelton

On the afternoon of September 22nd, in the 91st year of his extraordinary and rich life,

Art Sager succumbed to cancer of the liver and passed away quietly and peacefully at the Royal Jubilee Hospital in Victoria.

He was born on 22 October 1916 in Hazelton, British Columbia, the son of Dr. William Sager, a medical missionary, and his wife Esther (Hettie), nee Duckers. His life took him to many places: he lived in Surf Inlet, Port Simpson, Port Coquitlam, Vancouver, London (England), Ottawa, New York, Addis Ababa, Rome, Aix en Provence, and, finally, Victoria.

From early 1942 to 1945 he was a Spitfire pilot in the RCAF, becoming a Flight Commander and then Commanding Officer of 443 Squadron. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and the French Legion d’Honneur. He was, at various times before and after the war, a journalist, actor, steamship deckhand, mucker, teacher, CBC radio producer, Assistant to the President of the University of British Columbia, Executive Assistant to the federal Minister of Fisheries, Public Relations Director of the Fisheries Association of B.C., Director of the UBC Alumni Association, Director of UBC’s International House, and international civil servant with the United Nations. He finished his career with FAO (the Food and Agriculture Organization) in Rome, and then moved to Aix en Provence in 1978, where he lived for a quarter of his life. He moved to Victoria in 2000, and spent seven gloriously energetic and happy years at Somerset House on Dallas Road.

A disciplined and punctilious wordsmith, he is the author of Line Shoot: Diary of a Fighter Pilot (Vanwell, 2002), It’s In the Book: Notes of a Naive Young Man (Trafford, 2003), a family history entitled The Sager Saga (1998), a history of Somerset House, and many short articles and biographies in The Trumpeter, the Somerset House magazine.

Twice married (to the late Dorothy Planche of Vancouver in 1941; to Jacqueline Roussel of Rouen, France, in 1967), he is predeceased by brother Murray and sister Shirley, and survived by his son Eric Sager of Victoria, daughters Ann Blades and Susan Henry of Surrey, granddaughters Catherine and Zoe, grandsons Jack, Angus, James, Kevin and Ian, brothers Melvin and Henry, sister Elsie Wilson, a multitude of cousins and nieces and nephews, friends in several countries, and his beloved companion of recent years, Scotty Day.

Art insisted that there be no funeral, but family and friends are invited to a gathering of remembrance in the Harbour Room, Delta Ocean Pointe Hotel, 45 Songhees Road, Victoria, at 2 p.m. Sunday 30 September.

In lieu of flowers or gifts the family recommends donations in Art’s memory to Y2-K Spitfire”, the Spitfire restoration project, c/o Comox Air Force Museum, 19 Wing Comox, P.O. Box 1000, STN FORCES, Lazo, B.C. V0R 2K0. 411869

Published in The Times Colonist from September 25 to September 26, 2007
 

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